Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:68:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:109:\"Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:88:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1148;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:178:\"Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:103:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:229;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:134:\"Declaration of date_handler_field_multiple::pre_render() should be compatible with content_handler_field_multiple::pre_render($values)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:91:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/date/date/date_handler_field_multiple.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:185;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:132:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:87:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:128:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:87:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:108:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:87:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:134:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:89:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:599;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:110:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:89:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:599;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:127:\"Declaration of views_plugin_query::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:86:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_query.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:181;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:102:\"Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options()\";s:5:\"%file\";s:94:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:24;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:130:\"Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:84:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:136;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:68:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:136:\"Declaration of views_handler_argument::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:91:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:917;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:112:\"Declaration of views_handler_argument::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:91:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:917;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:139:\"Declaration of views_plugin_argument_validate::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:98:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_argument_validate.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:87;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:68:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:68:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:137:\"Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context\";s:5:\"%file\";s:101:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:25;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135

Warning: INSERT command denied to user 'dbo344192829'@'74.208.56.108' for table 'watchdog' query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:137:\"Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context\";s:5:\"%file\";s:101:\"/homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:25;}', 3, '', 'http://archive.cjfe.org/content/defamation-and-libel-international', '', '54.81.15.11', 1542091899) in /homepages/29/d343349881/htdocs/includes/database.mysql.inc on line 135
Defamation and Libel: International | CJFE
 

Defamation and Libel: International

Defamation and libel laws protect citizens against the spreading of false information, either written or spoken, which might damage one’s reputation or dignity.

Free expression advocates in this area have two major goals. First, that defamation and libel laws should be civil rather than criminal – Canada, for instance, still has criminal libel laws that could lead to jail sentences. And, second, that damage to reputations must be weighed against the consequences of limiting the Charter right to free speech. In 2009, the Supreme Court of Canada created the defence of responsible communication on matters of public interest, which provides journalists with qualified immunity if they act professionally even if they report incorrect information that might otherwise be considered defamatory or libelous.

Defamation and Libel